Gestational Diabetes: Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes Evaluation
Introduction: Recently, improvements have been made in the screening and treatment of gestational diabetes (GD). Nevertheless, outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GD have not yet reached those without this complication. The main purpose of this study was to characterize a population of pregnant women with GD and compare it with a population of pregnant women with negative screening for GD.
Material and Methods: We conducted an observational and retrospective study, based on consultation of clinical data from 201 women diagnosed with GD and 201 women with negative screening of GD, who have had follow-up of pregnancy and delivery in our hospital.
Results: Pregnant women with GD were found to be older (33 vs 31 years, p = 0.001) and have gestational hypertension more frequently (6% vs 2%, p = 0.041). In the GD group we found a significantly higher caesarean section rate (40.3% vs 24.4%, p = 0.001), being cephalo-pelvic disproportion the main cause for caesarean section (32.9%). There were no differences between groups concerning fetal birth weight. Newborns of pregnant women with GD had more shoulder dystocia (3% vs 0%, p = 0.014) and were more frequently admitted to Neonatology department (14.9% vs 8.5%, p = 0.044), mainly because of hypoglycemia. We did not find significant risk factors for that outcome.
Discussion: We found that women with GD were older, had a higher gestational hypertension incidence, caesarean section rate and neonatal department admissions.
Conclusion: In the present study, GD was associated with higher obstetric and, mainly, neonatal morbidity.
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